Biotic function of charcoal in pine ecosystems of the inland Northwest
MacKenzie, M. Derek*,1, DeLuca, Thomas 1, Gundale, Michael1, Kurth, Valerie1, Brimmer, Rachel1, 1 College of Forestry and Conservation, Missoula, Montana, USA, Ecological Society of America, Annual Meeting,Portland,OR 2004

Symbiosis between Frankia and actinorhizal plants: Root nodules of non-legumes
K Pawlowski & A Sirrenberg, Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol. 41, October 2003, pp. 1165-1183


Rhizobacterial diversity in India and its influence on soil and plant health
Johri BN et al.Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol, 2003, 84, 49 - 89

Actinorhizal Trees Useful in Cool to Cold Regions
NFT Highlights,NFTA 86-03, May 1986, FACTNEt, Winrick International

A class of plants that helped develop soil on glaciated sites in the past has a future in agroforestry and land reclamation projects of today and tomorrow. These plants are known as actinorhizae, as they are nodulated by the nitrogen-fixing actinomycete, Frankia These predominately temperate trees are especially useful in areas where the mostly tropical woody legumes can not live or thrive.

Actinorhizal plants have been used historically to increase fertility in agricultural systems. Lack of knowledge about the group's ecology prevents more widespread user but the trees are currently used in the following four ways:

Charcoal effects on soil solution chemistry and growth of Koeleria macrantha in the ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir ecosystem
Gundale, Michael; DeLuca, Thomas, Biology and Fertility of Soils, Volume 43, Number 3, January 2007 , pp. 303-311(9)


Wildfire Charcoal and Soil Processes
Thomas H. DeLuca, Adjunct Professor of Forest Soils,

Charcoal and activated carbon as adsorbate of phytotoxic compounds


This study compares the potential of natural charcoal from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and activated carbon to improve germination under the hypothesis that natural charcoal adsorbs phytotoxins produced by dwarf-shrubs, but due to it's chemical properties to a lesser extent than activated carbon. Activated carbon has been used in many bioassays as an adsorbate to clean aqueous solutions.

We used aqueous extracts from young leaves of Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull and Vaccinium myrtillus (L.) as phytotoxin sources in two different concentrations (10 and 14 gr. of dried leaves in 100 ml distilled water). Germination of pine seeds was prevented by the higher concentration of both species, while the lower ones did not show significantly reduced germination. Both ericaceous species showed a very similar potential to prevent germination of Scots pine seeds.

Nitrogen mineralization and phenol accumulation along a fire chronosequence in northern Sweden
T. DeLuca, M.-C. Nilsson, O. Zackrisson , Oecologia, October 2002



Understory vegetation as a forest ecosystem driver: evidence from the northern Swedish boreal forest
Marie-Charlotte Nilsson and David A Wardle, Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment,Volume 3, Issue 8 (October 2005) pp. 421Sports News | Nike Air Force 1 White/Silver Fashion Casual Shoes AA3825-100 Sale , Idae

The charcoal effect in Boreal forests: mechanisms and ecological consequences
D. A. Wardle, O. Zackrisson, M.-C. Nilsson, Department of Forest Vegetation Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of Forestry, S-901 83 UmeSport media | Patike – Nike Air Jordan, Premium, Retro Klasici, Sneakers , Iicf


Alternatives to Methyl Bromide in Southern Forest Tree Nurseries
Clark W. Lantz, 1Nursery/Tree Improvement Specialist, Cooperative Forestry, USDA Forest Service, Atlanta, GA, 1997

Forest tree nurseries in the southern US are growing an average of 1.2 billion seedlings per year or about 80% of
the total seedling production in the US. This annual nursery production supports a planting program of
approximately 1.8 million acres-an area about the size of the states of Delaware and Rhode Island combined.
Fumigation is practiced by 89% of these nurseries for both disease and weed control. The chemical of choice has
been methyl bromide, applied every year by some nursery managers and every second year by others.


Wisconsin Procedures for Soil Testing, Plant Analysis and Feed and Forage Analysis
Editor: John Peters, Department of Soil Science, University of Wisconsin-Madison(Compiled December, 2006)

This document provides analytical procedures on the following:

Soil Sample Preparation
Internal Check System
Soil pH and Sikora Lime Requirement
Available Phosphorus
Available Potassium
Organic Matter
Weight Loss-on-Ignition (LOI 360o)
B, Mn, Ca/Mg, SO4-S, and NO3-N

Bone Charcoal in Soil Enhancement Applications
Ebonex Corporation,,. Michigan, USA

Bone Charcoal Fines are derived from the manufacture of New Animal Charcoal - a carbonaceous adsorbent widely used in the Sugar Refining and Water Treatment Industries. The product is manufactured from selected grades of cattle bone carbonized at temperatures between 700oC and 1000oC for a total period of around 12 hours. Hence, the final product is virtually sterile, suitable and, indeed, safe for use in food industry applications.


Soil Chemistry as Affected by First-time Prescribed Burning of a Grassland restoration on a Coastal Plain Ultisol
Sherman, Leslie A.; Brye, Kristofor R.; Gill, Douglas E.; Koenig, Kristin A.
Soil Science. 170(11):913-927, November 2005.



Seeing the Garden in the Jungle
Toby Hemenway Pacific University, Oregon

"Beyond Wilderness" (Published in Permaculture Activist No. 51)

A permaculturists view of cultivation in the jungle including the milpa, swidden and terra preta.
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Nitrogen Fixation in Acacias
Australian Center for International Agricultural Researchlatest Nike Sneakers | Nike Off-White

Effects of placing rice husk charcoal inside soil ridges for soil aeration and growth and yield of sweet potato in wet lowland fields
Islam, A. F. M. S.; Kitaya, Y.; Hirai, H.; Yanase, M.; Mori, G.; Kiyota, M. 1999

Journal of Root Crops 25(1): 85-97

Biodegradation of Charcoal Production Wastes
USGS Toxic Substances Hydrology Program, Toxics Program Remediation Activities

Kingsford, Michigan


* Waste Waters (Pyroligneous Acid)
* Hydrocarbons (Creosote and Tar)



Guide to Plant Nutrition Management
FAO Integrated Plant Nutrition Management 1998
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