Chemical Characterization of Pyrolysis Liquids of Rubberwood
Sunanta Apiraksakul*, Juraivan Ratanapisit, Athirat Rengnarong,
Juntima Chungsiriporn, Charun Bunyakan.
Chemical Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty, Prince of Songkla University,
Songkhla,90112 Thailand

Rubberwood (Hevea Brasiliensis) is one of the main plantation crops in Thailand. These
rubber trees are cut down when it becomes unproductive of latex yielding of around 25 years and wood


Preliminary study of application effect of bamboo vinegar on vegetable growth
Forestry Studies in China, 2006

Mu Jun 1 Contact Information, Yu Zhi-ming 1, Wu Wen-qiang 2 and Wu Qing-li 3
(1) College of Materials Science and Technology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, 100083, P. R. China
(2) Beijing Soil and Fertilizer Station, Beijing, 100029, P. R. China
(3) Beijing Forestry University Forest Science Co., Ltd, Beijing, 100083, P. R. China


Promoting effect of wood vinegar compounds on fruit-body formation of Pleurotus ostreatus
Hisashi Yoshimura1, Hisako Washio1, Sadao Yoshida1, Takao Seino1, Mitsuho Otaka1, Kazunori Matsubara1 and Matsutoshi Matsubara, Matsubara Syokutake Co., 1151-1, Kurotori, Kurosaki-Machi, 950-11 Niigata, Japan April 1995


wood vinegar

Pyracetic acid;impure acetic acid produced by the destructive distillation of pine tar and wood.

Synonym: pyroligneous vinegar. affiliate tracking url | Air Jordan Sneakers

Korean "Vital Force" Oak Wood Vinegar Product
ESDY Corporation,Korea

Detailed Product Description
Wood Vinegar come from Korean OAK tree, which are an innovative environmental 100% natural materials used as a soil fertilizer, Odor removal, animal feed additions etc etc. Your inquiries will get exact applications and effectiveness in most fields of usages other than below areas.

1. Agricultural use
- To sterilize the soil


Carbonland Plantonic Plant Growth Nutrient
Carbonland, Malyasia

Wood vinegar product.

PlantonicTM is an entirely plant-based extract produced from the carbonization of wood. The condensation of the gaseous substances during the process of carbonization gives a reddish-brown solution with distinct smokey odour that is known as pyroligneous acid or wood vinegar. The solution contains more than 200 natural compounds such as organic acids, minerals, and other complex organic compounds found only in plants.


  • accelerates plant growth
  • acts as pest repellent
  • promotes healthy and balanced plant growth
  • improves sweetness of fruits
  • increases shelf life of fruits and vegetables
  • controls growth of harmful fungi and bacteria Carbonland Plantonic Plant Growth Nutrient

Only small changes in soil organic carbon and charcoal concentrations found one year after experimental slash-and-burn in a temperate deciduous forest
E. Eckmeier, R. Gerlach, J. O. Skjemstad, O. Ehrmann, M. W. I. Schmidt, Biogeosciences Discussions, 4, 595-614, 2007

Manage carbon to sustain soil structure

Soil organic carbon plays a critical role in the biological, chemical and physical health of a soil. But little is known about how crop management impacts on soil organic carbon levels and thus soil health. This article describes how a new approach to understanding this relationship could help farmers better manage soil organic carbon.


Bamboo charcoal
123Bamboo Lin'an City, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China,

Bamboo charcoal is manufactured by carbonizing dried bamboo in a kiln under controlled temperature and humidity. Bamboo charcoal is a good air purifier as it has the property of absorbing odor, moisture and harmful gases. It is also a good water purifier as it filters and absorbs pollutants, chlorine, pesticides and poisonous materials. It has an extremely porous structure and is a better and eco-friendly option to wood charcoal.

Domestic Applications: charcoal pillows, mattresses and to preserve freshness in refrigerators, deodorizer in moist places.

Agriculture Applications: change soil structure, eliminate negative effects of pesticides on plants, increase soil temperature and amount of water content

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Biogeochemical Processes Influencing Formation and Stabilization of Soil Organic Matter and Soil Structure
Douglas Karlen, Research Leader, Ames, IA 50011 USDA ARS, Soil and Water Quality Research

Project Number: 3625-11120-003-00
Project Type: Appropriated

Start Date: Apr 25, 2006
End Date: Apr 24, 2011


Measuring soil compaction using a penetrometer (soil compaction tester)
Pennsylvania State University,Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Agronomy Facts 63, 2002

Soil compaction can easily reduce crop yields by 10 percent, and can lead to water and soil quality degradation due to increased runoff and soil structure destruction.

Penetrometer: A diagnostic tool to measure the extent and depth of subsurface compaction is a penetrometer, or soil compaction tester.

North Carolina: Bio-char Legislation Recommended
North Carolina Climate Action Plan Advisory Group: Agriculture, Forestry, and Waste Management Technical Work Group Mitigation Options

MitigationOption: Soil Carbon Management (AFW3)
GHG Reductions 2007-2020 4.9 MMtCO2e NPV -$26 milliion

Mitigation Option Description

Cornell University Biochar: Work By others
Johannes Lehmann

Bio-char: Research by our Colleagues

Groups that are very active in exploring bio-char as a soil amendment through greenhouse and field experiments (not comprehensive, please excuse any important omissions):

- Marco Rondon: Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), Cali, Colombia

- Bruno Glaser: Institute of Soil Science, University of Bayreuth, Germany

- M. Ogawa: Kansai Research Institute, Japan

Effective Utilization of Waste Products for Agriculture Based on Carbonization
SHINOGI Yoshiyuki, National Institute for Rural Engineering, 2-1-6 Kannondai,
Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8609, Japan
YAMAOKA Masaru, National Institute for Rural Engineering, 2-1-6 Kannondai,
Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8609, Japan
SAITO Takanori, National Institute for Rural Engineering, 2-1-6 Kannondai,
Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8609, Japan


Biocarbons (Charcoal)
Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, January 2007

Consider the following riddle:

I am renewable;
I am a chemical element;
as a fuel I am often less expensive ($/GJ) than natural gas;
my energy density (GJ/m3) can exceed that of ethanol or LPG;
and my combustion does not add to the CO2 in the atmosphere;
I am easily stored and safe to transport;
I clean the water you drink and the air you breathe;
Plants grow best in soils that are enriched with me;
I am a key ingredient in the production of semiconductors;
When eaten I settle an upset stomach and clean the intestines; and
No one is afraid of me!
What am I?

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The Art, Science, and Technology of Charcoal Production
Michael Jerry Antal, Jr., Morten Gronli, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 42 (8), 1619 -1640, 2003. 10.1021/ie0207919 S0888-5885(02)00791-1 Web Release Date: March 14, 2003



Mulch & Soil Council
Manassas, VA

The Trade Association for Processors of Horticultural Mulches,
Consumer Potting Soils and Commercial Growing Media.

See Voluntary Uniform Product Guidelines (attached)for:

Any product or material except peat or peat moss, that is advertised, offered for sale, or sold for primary use as a horticultural, above-ground dressing.


Secrets to Great Soil: A Grower's Guide to Composting, Mulching, and Creating Healthy, Fertile Soil for Your Garden and Lawn (Storey's Gardening Skills Illustrated)
Elizabeth P. Stell in tdc's Farmgate

Where can you get Cheap Natural Fertilizers and Soil Amendments?
David Hall, iVillage GardenWeb

One of our composting experts and friends on this site, David Hall (DcHall_San_Antonio), recently gave a great list of some of the major benefits from soil high in organic matter:

Magic biochar: recycles, fertilises and sequesters
From the September 2006 edition of Agriculture Today.
New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Australia

Thousands of years ago, Amazonian Indians burned their waste organic matter in low intensity fires covered with dirt and straw.

The smouldering heat charred the organic matter, and the Indians added the charred material to their soils.


Carbon negative energy to reverse global warming
Danny Day, EPRIDA, A posting to Energy Resources Group on Yahoo 2004

A recent symposium (EACU) at the University of Georgia in Athens, GA,
USA brought together a group representing scientists from chemistry, archeology, physics, anthropology, microbiology, soil scientists, agronomists, renewable energy research, and representatives from DOE, USDA and industry. The focus was to look at the evidence for massive historical carbon utilization, current research and how carbon negative energy could be economically deployed today.

Market Feasibility for Products Developed at the Cashton Greens Energy Park
Cashton Area Development Corporation,and Stephen Joseph, BEST Energies March 15, 2006

Overall Project Introduction


How stable is Black Carbon? - An incubation experiment
A. Hilscher (1), H. Knicker (1)
(1) ehrstuhl fur Bodenkunde, TU Munchen, Germany

Black carbon (BC) and black nitrogen (BN) are produced by incomplete combustion of vegetation and occurs ubiquitously in soils. BC has a highly aromatic structure with few functional groups, and is assumed to be relatively resistant to decay. Thus, the charred plant material may play an important role in carbon sequestration. But assuming that biomass burning occurred at the same rate than nowadays since the last glacial maximum, BC should account for 25 to 125% of the total SOM pool (Masiello, 2004). To be able to estimate the recalcitrance of BC in soils, knowledge is required concerning its degradation rates and mechanisms. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to examine the degradation and humification of BC and its transport within the soil profile. A further interest is the impact of addition fresh plant material as co-substrate (CM) on the BC degradation.

Yvonne Baskin (e-mail:,Bozeman, Montana. Notes from the 2006 AAAS Annual Meeting


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